TRANSATLANTIC SHIPPING CARTELS AND MIGRATION BETWEEN EUROPE AND AMERICA, 1880-1914

  • Drew Keeling

Abstract

The greatest intercontinental migration in human history was also the first large-scale international transportation business. One century ago, transnational shipping cartels helped make the oceanic transport of European migrants to America a widespread enterprise in which capacity management, not opportunistic exploitation, was the crucial element. The cartels’ success underscores the overlapping and transatlantic job-seekers in the facilitation and limited regulation of mass migration.